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                      Home History and Culture Ancient Capitals of China (Nanjing)
                      Ancient Capitals of China (Nanjing)
                      Learn Chinese - History and Culture

                                  Nanjing
                      Nanjing (nán jīng 南京) has a long history. The Six dynasties of the Wu (wú 吳), the Eastern Jin (dōng jìn 東晉), the Song (sòng cháo 宋朝), the Qi (qí 齊), the Liang (liáng 梁) and the Chen (chén 陳), chose Nanjing as their capital. Later on, the Southern Tang Dynasty (nán táng 南唐), the Ming Dynasty (míng cháo 明朝), the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (tài píng tiān guó 太平天國, 1852-1864AD) and the Republic of China also made Nanjing their capital. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing became the capital of Jiangsu Province and the largest comprehensive industrial city of this province.

                      Nanjing witnessed the triangular balance of power of the Three Kingdoms (sān guó 三國, 220-280AD), the ups and downs of six dynasties, the insult inflicted on contemporary China, as the Xinhai Revolution (xīn hài gé mìng 辛亥革命) of 1911 and the War of Resistance against Japan (1937-1945). After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, it has experienced rapid economic growth. It is one of the biggest open industrial cities in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the coastal areas of East China. It is also a famous water-land transportation hub.

                      Zhonghua GateThe Zhonghua Gate
                      The Zhonghua Gate (zhōng huá mén 中華門) is the biggest city gate in Nanjing, which is made up of three urn-like city walls and four gates. It is 128m long from south to north and 118.5m wide from east to west, covering an area of 15168 square meters. The wall, 21.45m high, is a magnificent project of complicated structure and fine design. It takes a significant position in China’s history of city wall construction.

                      Sun Yat-sen MausoleumThe Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
                      The Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum (zhōng shān líng 中山陵) is built to commemorate Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the great pioneer of the democratic revolution in China. This mausoleum, like a big bell, ascends from the south to the north by 392 steps. The whole building complex is designed to display a solemn and majestic air, known as “the best mausoleum in the history of Chinese contemporary architecture”.

                      The Qinhuai River
                      The Qinhuai River (qín huái hé 秦淮河), a famous scenic spot, consists of the inner river and outer river. The inner river is in the city of Nanjing, which is the busiest place along the ten-li Qinhuai. The biggest attraction of Qinhuai River is the lantern boats which can be traced back to the Ming Dynasty. All the boats on the river, big or small, hang colorful lanterns up and everyone visiting here enjoys the pleasure of taking a ride on the boats.

                      The Confucius Temple
                      Located on the northern bank of the Qinhuai River, the Confucius Temple (fū zǐ miào 夫子廟) was first built in 1034, and was originally a place for enshrining and offering sacrifice for Confucius. Now it has become a place where local people can have some cultural activities. The construction of this ancient complex, including the surrounding teahouses, restaurants and stores were all built in the style of the Ming and Qing dynasties. More than 200 different traditional foods and local delicacies are available there.

                      中國古都之南京

                      Qinhuai River      南京歷史悠久,東吳、東晉和南朝的宋、齊、梁、陳(史稱六朝)以及南唐、明、太平天國、中華民國共10個朝代和政權在此建都。中華人民國和國成立后,南京為江蘇省省會,成為江蘇最大的綜合工業城市。

                            南京目睹過三國鼎立和六朝興亡,見證過近代中國的屈辱,也經歷了辛亥革命和抗日戰爭。中華人民共和國成立后,南京發展迅速,是長江下游、華東沿海地區對外開放的大工業城市之一,也是著名的水路交通樞紐。

                      中華門
                            中華門是南京城墻的最大城門,由三道甕城和四道城門組成,南北長128米,東西寬118.5米,總面積達15168平方米。城墻高21.45米,工程宏偉,結構復雜,設計巧妙,在中國城墻建筑史上占有極其重要的地位。

                      Confucius Temple中山陵
                            中山陵是中國偉大的民族革命先行者孫中山先生的陵墓。陵墓像一個大鐘,由南往北山勢逐漸升高,共有392級臺階。整個建筑布局嚴整、莊嚴雄偉,為譽為“中國近代史上的第一陵。”

                      秦淮河
                            秦淮河分內河和外河。內河在南京城內,是十里秦淮最繁華的地方。秦淮風光最著名的是自明代沿襲至今的燈船。河上的船,不論大小,一律懸掛彩燈。到秦淮河游玩的人,都可以乘燈船為樂事。

                      夫子廟
                            夫子廟位于秦淮河北岸,始建于1034年,原是供奉和祭祀孔子的地方,現在已成為群眾文化活動場所。夫子廟古建筑群,包括周圍的茶館、酒樓、店鋪等建筑都是明清風格。這里的傳統小吃特別多,品種不下200。

                       

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