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                      Home History and Culture Ancient Capitals of China (Beijing)
                      Ancient Capitals of China (Beijing)
                      Learn Chinese - History and Culture

                            
                      Beijing (běi jīng 北京) is a world renowned city of history and culture. The Liao Dynasty (liáo dài 遼代) made Beijing its alternate capital since 938AD. Later, Beijing become the capital city of Jin Dyansty (jīn dài 金代), called Zhongdu (zhōng dū 中都), capital of the Yuan Dyansty (yuán cháo 元朝), known as Dadu (dà dū 大都), and capital of the Ming (míng cháo 明朝) and Qing Dyansty (qīng cháo 清朝). During early Republican period in 1910s it became the capital of Republic of China. In 1928, the capital was moved to Nanjing (nán jīng 南京) and Beijing renamed Beiping (běi píng 北平), a name that held until 1949. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Beijing was once again renamed Beijing, and designated the country’s capital.

                      In the 50-odd years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the capital has developed quickly and taken on a new look. Modern buildings rise up one by one like bamboo shoots in the spring after rain. With the successful bid for the summer Olympic Games in 2008 the concept of “Green Olympics, Technology Olympics and Cultural Olympics” will definitely bring large changes to Beijing, and strengthen the friendly communication between China and the other world.

                      Beijing possesses a strong force in science and technology. The Chinese Academy of Sciences,
                      Peking University and Tsinghua University are among the world famous scientific research organizations and institutions of higher education. At the same time, Beijing is making efforts to develop its hi-tech industries. The Zhongguancun area, now called China’s Silicon Valley, has gathered a galaxy of talents.

                      The Great Wall

                      The Great Wall (cháng chéng 長城) is known for its incomparable grandeur and long history. It is regarded as one of the world wonders. In 1987, it was inscribed on the world cultural heritage list by UNESCO.

                      The Palace Museum in Beijing
                          
                      The Palace Museum (gù gōng bó wù guǎn 故宮博物館), also called the Forbidden City (zǐ jìn chéng 紫禁城), was the royal palace of the Ming and Qing dynasty. In 1987 it was inscribed on the world cultural heritage list by UNESCON.

                      The Palace Museum is the world’s largest royal palace complex, with more than 9000 rooms inside. It is the biggest national museum in China with the richest cultural and artistic treasures. It are kept myriads of historical culture relics and artistic treasures of every dynasty. Its unique architectural style is the epitome of Chinese classical architecture.

                      The Temple of Heaven
                         
                      The Temple of Heaven (tiān tán 天壇), built in 1420, was an alter where emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties offered sacrifices to heaven and prayed for a good harvest. Enjoying high reputation in the world for its special architecture and delicate decorations, it is listed by UNESCO as a world cultural heritage site.


                      中國古都之北京

                            北京是世界文化名城和古都之一。自938年以來,遼以北京為陪都。此后北京又先后成為金中都、元大都、明清國都。民國初為都城,1928年國民黨政府遷都南京,始將北京改名為北平市。1949年中華人民共和國成立,恢復北京的名稱,并正式定為首都。

                            中華人民共和國成立50多年來,北京的建設日新月異,現代化建筑如雨后春筍般相繼崛起。北京成功地獲得了2008年奧運會的舉辦權。“綠色奧運、科技奧運、人文奧運”的宗旨,給北京帶來的更大的變化,也進一步加強了中國和世界的友好交流。

                            北京科技力量強大,有中國科學院、北京大學、清華大學等世界著名的科研機構和高等學府。同時,北京正大力發展高新技術產業,人才密集的中關村被稱為中國的“硅谷”。

                      長城
                            長城以它浩大的工程,雄偉的氣魄和悠久的歷史著稱于世,被列為世界奇跡,1987年被聯合國教科文組織列為世界文化遺產名錄。

                      故宮
                            故宮又稱紫禁城,是明、清兩朝的皇宮,1987年被聯合國科教文組織列為世界文化遺產名錄。
                      故宮是世界上最大的皇家宮殿群,內有宮室9000多間。它是中國最大的國家博物館,也是最豐富的文化和藝術寶庫。宮內藏有大量的歷史文物和歷史藝術珍品。它獨特的建筑風格是中國古代建筑的精華。

                      天壇
                            天壇建成于1420年,是明、清兩代皇帝每年祭天和祈禱五谷豐收的地方。天壇建筑結構奇特,裝飾精美,在世界上享有很高的聲譽。

                       

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