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                      Liangzhu Jade
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                      ????? Liangzhu Jade
                      The history of Liangzhu jade (liáng zhǔ yù 良渚玉) can be traced back to 4300 to 5000 years ago. Most Liangzhu jade items were excavated in Fanshan (fǎn shān 反山), Yaoshan (yáo shān 瑤山) in Zhejiang Province (zhè jiāng shěng 浙江省), Qianshanyang (qián shān yàng 錢山漾), Caoxieshan (cǎo xié shān 草鞋山) in Jiangsu Province (jiāng sū shěng 江蘇省), and Shanghai (shàng hǎi 上海). The delicacy of Liangzhu jade is beyond praise.

                      CongThe key Neolithic jade items of Liangzhu culture were found in tombs near Liangzhu about 30 km north of Hangzhou (hang zhōu 杭州), Zhejiang Province. Liangzhu jade is characterized by finely-worked large ritual jades such as Cong (cylinders, cōng 琮), Bi (discs, bì 璧) and also pendants and decorations in the form of chiseled open-work plaques, plates and representations of small birds, turtles and fish. The Liangzhu jade is white, milky, and bone-like due to tremolite rock origin and influence of water-based fluids at the burial sites.

                      Liangzhu jaed works were made from local nephrite jade, and can be classified into ritual and insignia jade types, as well as implements. They are characterized by the fine work, especially the harmonious and exquisite carving decoration. The most mysterious is the god pattern. With the ferocious face, he’s wearing a huge and luxurious crown of feathers and sits akimbo on mythical beast. This kind of concrete of clan is regarded as a particular symbol of Liangzhu jade works. The appearance of large quantities of ritual jades with religious color, such as zong, is recognized as the dawn of the Chinese civilization.

                      良渚玉
                      Bi????? 良渚文化玉器距今約5000—4300年。發現玉器的重要地點有江蘇錢山漾、吳縣草鞋山、張陵山、上海青浦福泉山、江蘇武進寺墩、浙江余反山、瑤山等。良諸文化玉器數量很多,玉雕技藝之精湛,令人贊嘆不已。良渚文化玉器解放前即已流傳于世,曾被誤為戰國時代玉器。良渚玉器以琮、璧、鉞最多,造型宏大雄渾,風格嚴謹深刻,紋飾以神秘莫測的神人獸面引人入勝,陰線雕刻和浮雕完美組合,成為當時南方玉雕的最高水平代表。

                      ????? 良渚文化主要玉器有玉琮、璧、瑛、符、鐲、佩、珠、管、環、等禮器及梯形器、半圓形器、三叉形冠飾等,還有蟬、鳥等動物。良渚文化最大的特點是:除琮、璧鐲等少數玉器為單件外,多數玉器為復合件,其中有組裝件、穿綴件和鑲嵌件。

                      ????? 歸納起來看良渚文化玉器的顯著特征有以下幾方面:其一,玉料多來源本地,部分為軟玉;其二,大型玉器多為與宗教、祭祀和象征財富有關。裝飾玉器多為小件,缺少生產玉工具;其三,禮器玉器工藝考究,雕琢精細,打磨圓滑,出土玉器常出現“包漿殼”,也稱“玻璃光”;其四,玉器紋飾多為剔地淺浮雕和陰線刻,刻線呈細弧線和楔形,顯然是用堅硬的器具刻劃而成;其五,獸面紋、神人獸面紋飾尤其特殊,紋飾由簡到繁、由粗到精,很注重對稱美;其六,玉璧多為素面,雕琢粗糙。
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