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                Home History and Culture Gan and Shi's Celestial Book
                Gan and Shi's Celestial Book
                Learn Chinese - History and Culture

                ??? Five Planets
                As early as in Spring and Autumn Period (chūn qiū shí qī 春秋時期) and the Warring States Period (zhàn guó shí qī 戰國時期), Chinese people had made great achievement in astronomy. Based on their long-time observation of the celestial phenomena, Gan De (gān dé 甘德) of the State of Qi (qí guó 齊國) wrote a work titled Astronomy and Astrology (tiān wén xīng zhàn 天文星占) in eight volumes, and Shi Shen (shí shēn 石申) of the State of Wei (wèi guó 魏國)wrote his Astronomy (tiān wén 天文), also in eight volumes. The later generations combined their books, naming it Gan and Shi’s Celestial Book (gān shí xīng jīng 甘石星經), which is the earliest astronomic work in the world.

                Gan DeGan and Shi’s Celestial Book is the regarded as the earliest astronomic work in the world. It boasts a record of the names of over 800 stars, the positions of 121 which have been ascertained. Gan De discovered Jupiter's moon with the naked eye, 2,000 years earlier than the Italian astronomer Galileo, who discovered it with an astronomical telescope in 1609. Shi Shen discovered the reason for solar and lunar eclipses. A crater on the moon has been named after Shi Shen. Besides, the movement of five planets—Jupiter Shi Shen(mù xīng 木星), Mars (huǒ xīng 火星), Saturn (tǔ xīng 土星), Venus (jīn xīng 金星), and Mercury (shuǐ xīng 水星) and the rule dictating their appearances were also recorded. In later generations, many astronomers referenced the data from Gan and Shi’s Celestial Book when they measured the place and movement of the sun, the moon and the other planets. Thus, Gan and Shi’s Celestial Book is of great significance in the history of astronomy in China and the whole world.
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                甘石星經
                ????? 早在春秋戰國時期,中國人在天文領域就已經取得了很大的成就。在長期觀測天象的基礎上,戰國時期齊人甘德)寫出了一本著作名為《天文星占》,魏人石申(今屬河南開封)寫出了一本著作名為《天文》。后人將兩本著作合為一本,取名為《甘石星經》。

                Diagram of Stars???? 《甘石星經》是我國、也是世界上最早的一部天文學著作,可借它在宋代以后失傳了,今天只能從唐代的天文學書籍《開元占經》里見到它的一些片斷摘錄。這些片斷摘錄表明,甘德和石申曾系統地觀察了金、木、水、火、土五大行星的運行,發現了五大行星出沒的規律;他們還記錄了八百顆恒星的名字,測定了一百二十一顆恒星的方位。后人將甘德和石申測定的恒星記錄稱為《甘石星表》,這是我國、也是世界上最早的恒星表,比希臘天文學家伊巴谷測編的歐洲第一個恒星表大約早二百年,后世許多天文學家在測量日、月、行星的位置和運動時,都要用到《甘石星經》中的數據,因此,《甘石星經》在我國和世界天文學史上都占有重要地位。

                 

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