Skip to content
                Site Tools
                Increase font size Decrease font size Default font size default color blue color green color
                Home History and Culture Chinese Folk Vocal Art Forms
                Chinese Folk Vocal Art Forms
                Learn Chinese - History and Culture

                ?Nanyin
                Quyi (qǔ yì 曲藝) refers to folk vocal art forms (mín jiān kǒu tóu yìshù 民間口頭藝術) such as ballad singing (mín gē 民歌), story-telling (píng shū 評書), comic dialogue (xiǎo pǐn 小品), clapper talk (kuài bǎn 快板) and crosstalk (xiàng sheng 相聲).

                As an ancient performing art in China, quyi is a general term that covers several different types of performances in which speech, singing or both are used. Stone sculpture unearthed in Sichuang Province shows that the art existed early in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). As an independent art, it was formed in the middle Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Song Dynasty. Now more than 300 forms of quyi are popular among all ethnic groups throughout the country.

                ErrenzhuanDeeply rooted in China, the art is divided into three style categories and subdivided into 400 parts the three major styles are story-telling, story-singing, and joke-telling.

                Story-telling can be either words alone, or words accompanied by music. One of the most representative non-music styles in the North is called Pingshu (píng shū 評書); the same style in the South is called Pinghua (píng huà 評話).
                ?
                The most important form of joke-telling is Xiang sheng (xiàng sheng 相聲), or crosstalk, the comic dialogue of Northern China, which in the South is called Huaji (huá jī 滑稽), comic words in Chinese.
                ?
                Story-singing seems to have the largest sub-group. Each style has a strong local flavor in either its accent or music.
                ?


                Meihua DaguThe major categories are as follows:
                ?
                Beijing Qinshu (běi jīng qín shū 北京琴書) - This form of ballad-singing originated with farmers who liked to sing stories in their spare time. No professionals practised the art until the mid-19th century. The singing is usually accompanied by dulcimer (yáng qín 揚琴), but now sanxian (sān xián 三弦), and sihu (sì hú 四胡a four-stringed instrument) are sometimes added. The art is popular in Beijing and Tianjin.
                ?
                Errenzhuan (èr rén zhuàn 二人轉) - Also known as Bengbeng (bèng bèng 蹦蹦), this is a very popular art in Northeastern China. It is said to date from the early 19th century. The art is often performed by two persons, a man and a woman. It, which contains speaking, singing, playing, and dancing, is a walk-and-sing type of musical art. It is characterized by its humorous and strong local accent of the Northeastern China.
                ?
                DanxianDanxian (dān xián 單弦) - In this art one person sings while playing sanxian, a three-stringed plucked instrument. It is very popular in the north. The art is performed in two styles. In one, the singer is accompanied by a second person playing sanxian. In the other, one person sings and plays by himself.
                ?
                Dongbei Dagu (dōng běi dà gǔ 東北大鼓) - It is said that a ballad singer from Beijing brought this form of ballad-singing to Northeastern China during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). It is generally sung by one person who beats time to the accompaniment of sanxian played by a second person on stage.
                ?
                Dujiaoxi (dú jiǎo xì 獨角戲) - Also known as "comic play," this form of art is popular around Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It is originated in about 1920. Generally it is played by less than three persons, and combines singing, talking, performance and oral skills similar to those used in crosstalk.
                ?

                Henan ZhuiziHenan Zhuizi
                (hé nán zhuì zǐ 河南墜子) - This form of ballad-singing is popular in Henan Province, where it was formerly called Daoqing (dào qíng 道情) and Yinggeliu (yīng gē liǔ 鶯歌柳). It has borrowed much from other folk arts like Shandong Dagu, Sanxianshu (sān xián shū 三弦書) and Qinshu (qín shū 琴書). Growing from a local art, it first spread to Beijing, Tianjing and Shanghai in the 1920s, and gradually became one of the most popular arts throughout the country.
                ?
                Meihua DaguJingyun Dagu (jīng yùn dà gǔ 京韻大鼓) - This form of ballad-singing grew from a folk art called Muban Dagu (mù bǎn dà gǔ 木板大鼓) in Cangzhou and Hebei. It is now popular in Northeastern China and Hebei Province. Its repertoire is comprised of short stories that can be completed in about two hours.
                ?
                Laoting Dagu (lào tíng dà gǔ 樂亭大鼓) - This ballad-singing art, popular in Hebei Province, originated in Hebei's Leting County where locals are said to be good at singing. Its repertoire includes many classical Chinese literature works like "Journey to the West (xī yóu jì 西游記)."
                ?
                Meihua Dagu (méi huā dà gǔ 梅花大鼓) - This is a ballad singing art popular in Beijing and Tianjin. It is also known as Qingkou Dagu (qīng kǒu dà gǔ 清口大鼓), and Meihua Diao (méi huā diào 梅花調). It originated in Beijing during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
                ?
                Nanyin (nán yīn 南音) - Also known as Nanqu (nán qǔ 南曲), Nanguan (nán guǎn 南管), Nanyue (nán yuè 南樂), and Xianguan (xián guǎn 弦管), this ballad-singing art is popular in Fujian, Taiwan and Southeastern Asia.
                ?
                Crosstalk - Xiangsheng, is a language art combining four basic techniques: speech, mimicry (mó fǎng 模仿), comedy and song. Xiangsheng can be performed by one person or more, but the most common form is two people. Crosstalk performers try to use funny conversations to make the audience laugh.
                clapper talk
                Quyi has a wide mass basis and a strongly Chinese flavor. Many excellent quyi items reflect the Chinese people's thought, ideals and moral aspirations; many works sing the praises of national heroes, honest officials, and faithful lovers.
                ?
                曲藝
                ?
                ????? 曲藝是中華民族各種說唱藝術的統稱,它是由民間口頭文學和歌唱藝術經過長期發展演變形成的一種獨特的藝術形式。
                ?
                ????? 曲藝發展的歷史源遠流長。早在古代,我國民間的說故事、講笑話,宮廷中俳優(專為供奉宮廷演出的民間藝術能手)的彈唱歌舞、滑稽表演,都含有曲藝的藝術因素。Jiaodong Dagu到了唐代,講說市人小說和向俗眾宣講佛經故事的俗講的出現,大曲和民間曲調的流行,使說話伎藝、歌唱伎藝興盛起來,自此,曲藝作為一種獨立的藝 術形式開始形成。到了宋代,由于商品經濟的發展,城市繁榮,市民階層壯大,說唱表演有了專門的場所,也有了職業藝人,說話伎藝,鼓子詞、諸宮調、唱賺等演 唱形式極其昌盛,孟元老的《東京夢華錄》、耐得翁的《都城紀勝》都對此作了詳細記載。明清兩代及至民國初年,伴隨資本主義經濟萌芽,城市數量猛增,大大促 進了說唱藝術的發展,即一方面是城市周邊地帶賦有濃郁地方色彩的民間說唱紛紛流向城市,它們在演出實踐中日臻成熟,如道情、蓮花落、鳳陽花鼓、霸王鞭等; 一方面一些老曲種在流布過程中,結合各地地域和方言的特點發生著變化,如散韻相間的元、明詞話逐漸演變為南方的彈詞和北方的鼓詞。這一時期新的曲藝品種, 新的曲目不斷涌現,不少曲種已是名家輩出流派紛呈。我們今天所見到的曲藝品種,大多為清代至民初曲種的流傳。
                ?
                ????? 據調查統計,我國仍活躍在民間的曲藝品種有400個左右,流布于我國的大江南北,長城內外。這眾多的曲種雖然各自有各自的發展歷程,但它們都具有鮮明的民間性、群眾性,具有共同的藝術特征。其表現為:

                ? ? ? Suzhou Pingtan(一)以“說、唱”為主要的藝術表現手段。說的如相聲、評書、評話;唱的如京韻大鼓、單弦牌子曲、揚州清曲、東北 大鼓、溫州大鼓、膠東大鼓、湖北大鼓等等鼓曲;似說似唱的(亦稱韻誦體)如山東快書、快板書、鑼鼓書、萍鄉春鑼、四川金錢板等;又說又唱的(既有無伴奏的 說,又有音樂伴奏的唱)如山東琴書、徐州琴書、恩施揚琴、武鄉琴書、安徽琴書、貴州琴書、云南揚琴等;又說又唱又舞的走唱如二人轉、十不閑蓮花落、寧波走 書、鳳陽花鼓、車燈、商 花鼓等。

                ????? (二)曲藝不像戲劇那樣由演員裝扮成固定的角色進行表演,而是由不裝扮成角色的演員,以“一人多角”(一個曲藝演員可以模仿多種人物)的方式,通過說、唱,把形形色色的人物和各種各樣的故事,表演出來,告訴給聽眾。
                ?
                ????? traditional performance(三)曲藝表演的簡便易行,使它對生活的反映快捷。曲目、書目的內容多以短小精悍為主,因而曲藝演員通常能自編,自導,自演。與戲劇演員相比,曲藝演員所肩負的導演職能,尤為明顯。
                ?
                ????? (四)曲藝以說、唱為藝術表現的主要手段,因而它是訴諸人們聽覺的藝術。也就是說曲藝是通過說、唱刺激聽眾的聽覺來驅動聽眾的形象思維,在聽眾形象思維構成的意象中與演員共同完成藝術創造。
                ?
                ????? (五)為使聽眾享受到如聞其聲,如見其人,如臨其境的藝術美感,曲藝演員必須具備堅實的說功、唱功、做功,并需具有高超的摹仿力。只有當曲藝演員具有了活潑潑的動人技巧,對人物的喜怒哀樂刻劃得惟妙惟肖,對事件的敘述引人入勝,才能博得聽眾的欣賞。
                Quyi
                ????? 以上是400來個曲藝品種藝術特點的不同程度的近似之處,是它們的共性。而400多個曲種各自獨立存在,自有其個性。不僅如此,同一曲種由于表演者之各有所長,又形成不同的藝術流派,即使是同一流派,也因為表演者的差異各有特色,這就形成曲壇上百花爭艷的繁榮景象。
                 

                China Yellow Pages


                A片在线看免费观看视频网站大全