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                Ancient Capitals of China (Nanjing)
                History and Culture

                            Nanjing
                Nanjing (nán jīng 南京) has a long history. The Six dynasties of the Wu (wú 吳), the Eastern Jin (dōng jìn 東晉), the Song (sòng cháo 宋朝), the Qi (qí 齊), the Liang (liáng 梁) and the Chen (chén 陳), chose Nanjing as their capital. Later on, the Southern Tang Dynasty (nán táng 南唐), the Ming Dynasty (míng cháo 明朝), the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (tài píng tiān guó 太平天國, 1852-1864AD) and the Republic of China also made Nanjing their capital. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing became the capital of Jiangsu Province and the largest comprehensive industrial city of this province.

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                Ancient Capitals of China (Luoyang)
                History and Culture

                Luoyang (luò yáng 洛陽) lies in the west of Hennan Province (hé nán shěng 河南省). Situated in the central plain, it is known as “the Gravity Center of China” and “the Hinterland of Nine Divisions (a poetic name for China)”. Named due to the location on the north side of the Luohe River (luò hé 洛河), Luoyang is one of the most important places of origin of the Huaxia civilization (huá xià wén míng 華夏文明).

                Starting from the Xia Dynasty (xià cháo 夏朝), the first imperial dynasty in China, Luoyang severed as the capital for thirteen dynasties. It was the earliest capital city with the longest time of being capital in China’s history. During the Sui (suí cháo 隋朝) and Tang (táng cháo 唐朝) dynasties, with a population of more than one million, Luoyang was at that time the most prosperous city in the world.

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                Ancient Capitals of China (Anyang)
                History and Culture

                Anyang (ān yáng 安陽) was designated as a capital as early as the 14th century BC, when the 20th king of the Shang Dynasty (shāng cháo 商朝), Pangeng (pán gēng 盤庚), moved the capital to Yin (yīn 殷), today’s Xiaotun village (xiǎo tún cūn 小屯村), Anyang City (ān yáng shì 安陽市), Henan province (hé nán shěng 河南省).

                The rulers of the Shang Dynasty organized an immense construction there, and finally built Yin into a great capital in ancient China. After that, some other kingdoms in the Central Plains (comprising the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River) also chose Anyang as the capital as well, but no further accomplishment with regard to city construction was made. This ancient city was reduced to ruins by countless wars. After the Song Dynasty (sòng cháo 宋朝), cultural and architectural relics of the Yin times were discovered from time to time, especially in several large-scale excavations after the founding of People’s Republic of China.
                 

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                Ancient Capitals of China (Kaifeng)
                History and Culture
                              
                Formerly named Bianliang (biàn liáng 汴梁), Kaifeng (kāi fēng 開封) is one of the major seven ancient capitals in China. According to some research, there were human activities around Kaifeng area as early as the capital of a number of dynasties such as the Later Liang Dynasty (hòu liáng 后梁), the Later Jin Dynasty (hòu jìn 后晉), the Han Dynasty (hàn dài 漢代) and the Later Zhou Dynasty (hòu zhōu 后周). In 960 AD, the Northern Song Dynasty (běi sòng 北宋) was founded and made Kaifeng its capital, then known as "Dongdu” (dōng dū 東都, Eastern Captial). During the Northern Song Dynasty, with a population of 1.5 million, Kaifeng was not only the economic, political and cultural hub of China, but also the greatest international metropolis, and hence the title “thoroughfare of the world”.
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                Ancient Capitals of China (Hangzhou)
                History and Culture

                Hangzhou (háng zhōu 杭州) has a long history, and extensive cultural heritages. As early as in the New Stone Age, 4000to 5000years ago, its first inhabitants created the splendid Liangzhu Culture (liáng zhǔ wén huà 良渚文化), reputedly called the twilight of civilization. Hangzhou was called Qiantang (qián táng 錢塘) in ancient times. Over 2200 years has passed since it was designated as the seat of Qiantang County in the Qin Dynasty (qín cháo 秦朝). In 1129, Hangzhou was renamed Lin’an (lín 'ān 臨安). In 1138, the Southern Song Dynasty (nán sòng 南宋) made Lin’an its capital, and since then it served as the capital in the following 140 years.

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                Five Yue
                History and Culture

                    
                "Five Yue" refers to the five famous and big mountains in China, which are respectively located in the east, south, west, north and south of the country.

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