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            Abacus and Abacus Calculation
            History and Culture

            ????Abacus
            Many centuries ago, the abacus (suàn pán 算盤) evolved independently in many countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and China. Its use is recorded in China as early as 6th century B.C., from where it found its way to Korea and Japan.

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            Textile Technique
            History and Culture

            ????? Textile Technique
            Textile technique
            (fǎng zhī jì shù 紡織技術) has a long history in China. As early as in the primitive society,? people in?ancient China have taken advantage of the natural resource to make simple textile facilities?for weaving so as to adapt to the changeable weather.

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            San Xing Dui
            History and Culture

            ?sanxingdui

            Sanxingdui (sān xīng duī 三星堆), which is situated in Southwest China’s Sichuan Basin, is the location of ruins found dating back to the Bronze Age (qīng tóng shí dài 青銅時代) in the middle and late Shang Dynasty (shāng cháo 商朝) (1600BC—1046BC). The name was given for due to its appearance which resembles three earth pits. Excavation began in 1980. Two large sacrificial pits were later unearthed in 1986, generating great interest internationally.

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            Simuwu Ding
            History and Culture

            Simuwu DingDing (dǐng 鼎) was a cooking vessel probably used to boil or cook food ancient China. It can be traced back to the Neolithic Age in the primitive society. As early as 7000 ago, there are dings made of clay. During the Shang (shāng 商) and Zhou (zhōu 周) dynasties, bronze casting technology reached a high level in China. Therefore, people used bronze to cast ding. And the ding was no longer the cooking utensils in common people’s life but an object for important ceremonies to offer sacrifices. It was a symbol of imperial power.


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            Changxin Palace Lamp
            History and Culture

            changxingongdengThere were a great varieties of lamps in ancient China, oil-burning lamps were a common means of night-time illumination in this and later periods. The Changxin Palace Lamp (cháng xìn gōng dēng 長信宮燈) of the Han Dynasty ( hàncháo 漢朝) (208BC220AD) is a veritable treasure.
            The Changxin Palace Lamp is made of bronze and is gold coated (líu jīn 鎏金). Textual research shows this lantern was used by the mother of Emperor Jingdi (jǐngdì 景帝) (156-140BC).The lantern has an ingenious design and as a whole, it is the shape of a maid of honor on her knees holding a lantern. The lamp she holds is pivoted so that light could be directed as her mistress might wish. Smoke from the candle within passes up through the girl's sleeve and on into the hollow body, so no soot would dirty the room. The lamp holder can store water, dissolving soot from the smoke. Now it is in the collection of the Museum of Hebei Province (héběi 河北), China.

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            Mogao Grottoes
            History and Culture

            mogaoku?

            Situated at a strategic point along the Silk Route (sī chóu zhī lù 絲綢之路), at the crossroads of trade as well as religious, cultural and intellectual influences, the 492 cells and cave sanctuaries in Mogao Grottoes (mò gāo kū 莫高窟) are famous for their statues and wall paintings, spanning 1,000 years of Buddhist art. The Mogao Grottoes contain priceless paintings, sculptures, some 50,000 Buddhist scriptures, historical documents, textiles, and other relics that first stunned the world in the early 1900s.
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